Manuscript of the Musical Offering. Wikimedia. Public Domain

Ashish, the Geek Wrestler, once asked me for a sort of introduction to Western music. The reason I’m writing this is to save him from metal rock. But the topic is immense and greater than my knowledge, so I guess I can write brief notes on specific aspects, like this one.

One of the characteristics of Western music is polyphony, e.g. music made of melodies that travel independently throughout the composition though harmoniously combined with one another. This whole thing, of combining different melodies together, began in the Middle Ages, possibly by chance, and progressed in the subsequent centuries.

Western music can also be monodic, the opposite of polyphonic, whenever there is either just one melody (monophony) or when a melody prevails over other sounds that serve as mere accompaniment to the main star, the melody itself.

In this nocturne for piano solo by Frédéric Chopin (op. 27 no. 2) we have a cantabile melody, sometimes doubled and with ornaments, accompanied by arpeggios and bass sounds. It is evident here that the melody is the main protagonist, despite the surrounding notes and some voice layering here and there.

Let us first listen to the real thing (we chose Maurizio Pollini for his unromantic interpretation of this romantic work) and we’ll then listen to and view a computer graphical representation of the same work, which favours analysis.

In the computerized version below (by Stephen Malinowski) we notice that the double notes of the melody are not always parallel, which creates like a secondary voice. At the end of the piece there is some slight hint of polyphony. But on the whole this is not a polyphonic piece. Chopin is mainly monodic. Only at the end of his life he inserted some polyphony in his most mature works.

Let us now plunge into the great polyphony of Johann Sebastian Bach (Brandenburg Concerto No.4, iii, Presto.) This music – whose clockwork complexity I hope will not hopelessly bore an unaccustomed ear – is such hard stuff I prefer to propose a computerized version first (also by Stephen Malinowski.)

Different colours and timbers help to mentally separate the different voices. The exercise of following the voices separately is highly educating and can result in great pleasure. No easy thing at first though. I should have chosen a music with less voices (2 or 3 maximum,) but I couldn’t find a Midi music as satisfying as this one, although being able to identify 3 voices (hard already) or  just 2 can be all right at first. The representation is what one usually gets on a Midi sequencer, i.e. a computer software, such as Steinberg Cubase.

Now a version with real players (the performers being unknown to me).

The music of Bach here presented is a fugue (or fugato). In a fugue voices (parts) are not all equal. There is a subject or theme (like a main melody) that is repeated many times at different levels of pitch. It is good exercise as well trying to identify, among the bunch of voices, the subject of a fugue whenever it pops up here and there, which is pretty often.

The study and practice of “the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm” is called counterpoint. It was highly developed during the Renaissance and was common practice later, during the Baroque period (Wikipedia).
Independent in contour and rhythm. Very important in polyphony. If played or sung separately, voices or melodies still make sense!

One last music by this great German composer: the Brandenburg Concerto No.3 – iii, Allegro, rich with tremendous energy and beauty.

69 thoughts on “Examples of Monodic and Polyphonic Music

  1. Thanks for the quick response. How many active participants do you engage with on your various pages. I look forward to exploring more.

    My koine Greek studies began about 35 years ago in the study of the New Testament. Since then I have studied classical Greek, Hebrew, Hieroglyphics, Latin and Spanish. I am interested in language, but regret not being in Europe to nail down the use of spoken languages. Perhaps reading your blog will be as helpful for language as reading about your Roman interests (like my Latin interests).

    How does Montaigne and narcissism fit into your background?



  2. @Conrad

    I hope I will not disappoint you, many of my posts being mind wanderings. It is my flippant side some guests share with me, which is though fun (and a bit philosophical, I believe).

    Greek, Hebrew, Hieroglyphics, Latin and Spanish seem quite tough skills. I wonder what your main interests are and where do you live.

    Well, narcissism, a sort of a jest in my bio info page, although there is some (annoying) narcissism in the Mediterranean people, born in the sun, something for example the Britons – from clouds and rough weather – reproach us, not without reason.

    But the beauty of classical or Renaissance art cannot be quite understood without considering a certain narcissistic component, in my view. Works of art (like Palladio’s villas or palaces) were for great families who sought distinction, éclat. The elegance of a Julius Caesar (I wrote a post on *this side* of him), or of most toreros for example, or of the French, who like to correct you when you speak their language, is explained by some narcissism as well. It may be a Roman and Greek thing, don’t want to ennoble it, quite the contrary, but it is us.

    Montaigne is a constant dialogue I have. He mythicizes the Ancient world as much as I do, he talks of himself without any self-love, a sort of high level country philosopher, and a spontaneous philosopher.

    I prefer ideas that unfold through scattered notes rather than finished books, more sedentary in my view and less thought provoking.

    All my best regards, Conrad



  3. Actually @ManOfRoma

    Sorry I did not mean to place a comment that is an ad. I just understand how our current search engine on the site is, and the way Paul Costopoulos had entered the reference your readers may not be able to find the album he was referencing.

    MoR. Don’t worry. This is the reason why I kept it, being a contribution.


  4. Interesting Blog. I should recommend it to some friends as well. I am particularly interested in polyphonic music.


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